Archive for the ‘Diseases’ Category


I suffer with thrush. My diabetes has been well controlled for ten years now. I do regular blood tests and most of them are less than 10 mmol/L and, whenever I check a urine test, it is always negative. I have been taking the oral contraceptive pill for three years and I understand that both diabetes and the Pill can lead to thrush. Can you advise me what to do? Hormone Replacement Therapy

Since your diabetes is well controlled and your urine consistently free from glucose, diabetes can probably be ruled out as a cause of the thrush. It sounds as if you are either being reinfected by your partner or alternatively it is an uncommon side effect of the Pill, and you should discuss the need for a change of contraception with your doctor.

I keep getting recurrence of vaginal thrush and my doctor says that, as I have diabetes, there is nothing that I can do about this – is this correct?

Thrush is due to an infection with a yeast (Candida) that thrives in the presence of a lot of glucose. If your diabetes is badly controlled and you are passing a lot of glucose in your urine, you will be very susceptible to vaginal thrush and, however much ointment and cream you use, it is likely to recur. The best treatment is to control your diabetes so well that there is no glucose in your urine, but if the thrush persists, you will need antifungal treatment from your doctor. If you keep your urine free from glucose, you should stay free from further thrush infections.


I want to try and avoid osteoporosis by taking HRT. As I have diabetes, is this sensible?

HRT is the most effective treatment for the prevention of osteoporosis but because of the problems mentioned in the previous question, some doctors are cautious about recommending it as a first choice. The decision depends on your individual risk of developing osteoporosis. If you have a high risk, you may choose to take HRT and accept the small chance of unwanted complications; if your risk is low, you may prefer to try an alternative, which may be less effective but lessen your chances of complications. Please speak to your doctor about this. You should, of course, take general measures such as ensuring adequate calcium in your diet and taking regular weight-bearing exercise.

Are the patch forms of HRT as suitable for women with diabetes as the tablets in GlobalCanadianPharmacy viagra?

There is no known difference between tablets and patches; all the answers to the questions above apply equally to patches.

Can you tell me if hormone replacement therapy for the menopause is suitable for women with diabetes?

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for the menopause consists of small doses of oestrogen and progesterone given to replace the hormones normally produced by the ovaries. Oestrogen levels in the blood begin to fall at the menopause and, if this happens rapidly, it can cause unpleasant symptoms, such as hot flushes. Replacement therapy is designed to allow a more gradual decline in the female hormones. There has been a lot of publicity about the adverse effects of HRT in the last few years and there is some evidence to suggest an increased risk of breast cancer, thrombosis and stroke. However, these risks have to be balanced against the benefits of HRT.

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Their overall hospital mortality, 7%, was higher than what we noted in our population, perhaps reflecting the single-center nature of their study. In the report by Roche three factors predicted in-hospital mortality and included age, clinical signs of AECOPD severity, and baseline dyspnea as measured by the British Medical Research Council grade. Points were assigned based on the presence of these variables, and the overall score had moderate sensitivity and specificity: 74% and 68%, respectively. Although the score proposed by Roche appears moderately accurate, the BAP-65 appears better suited for clinical use. BAP-65 has been validated in a broader distribution of patients treated in a variety of hospital types (eg, academics vs community, large vs small). In addition, Roche failed to examine if and how their score predicts need for MV or any measures of resource use. Furthermore, their score is somewhat more cumbersome than BAP-65. The Roche algorithm requires that the clinician analyze multiple factors that represent “disease severity” into a separate variable. Clinicians are also unlikely to use the British Medical Research Council dyspnea grading scheme at bedside. This necessarily mandates going through added steps and making subjective, rather than objective, judgments regarding signs and symptoms. The components of the BAP-65 are essentially objective. This aspect of the BAP-65 underscores that it can be applied with consistency, reliability, and generalizability—all crucial aspects of any potential clinical tool.

The BAP-65 class significantly correlated with both LOS and cost, making the system potentially useful for economic risk stratification and benchmarking purposes.

Table 2—Sensitivity, Specificity, and Positive and Negative Predictive Values of BAP-65 for Pooled Mortality or MV


BAP-65 Class Cut-off No. Mortality or Use of MV No. (%) Sensitivity Specificity PPV NPV
II-V 28,886 3,768 (3.2) 0.967 0.184 0.130 0.978
III-V 18,842 3,462 (5.3) 0.889 0.500 0.184 0.973
IV-V 5,064 2,014 (10.3) 0.517 0.901 0.398 0.936
V 738 471 (16.5) 0.121 0.991 0.638 0.899
Total 34,669 3,895 (11.2)

MV = mechanical ventilation; NPV = negative predictive value; PPV = positive predictive value. See Table 1 legend for expansion of other abbreviation.

Natural History

Contrary to popular belief, Peyronie’s disease is frequently a progressive disorder, as nearly half of untreated men have worsened curvature or increased plaque size. Among 246 men newly diagnosed with PD and followed for 1 year without treatment, 12% improved, 40% remained stable, and 48% worsened. Clinicians often separate the disease into an active and a quiescent phase based upon the clinical and diagnostic evaluation.

The quiescent, or chronic, phase is generally considered to be a time of disease stability without further progression in plaque size, penile deformity, or curvature. In contrast, the active phase is characterized by increasing plaque size or penile curvature and penile pain. While it may be true in many men that the active phase lasts from 12–18 months from the onset of disease, a significant proportion of men experience continued progression after this time point. Medical therapy in online Australia Pharmacy offers the promise of shortening the acute phase of disease by stabilizing the underlying penile lesion and minimizing progression of disease.

Etiology of Peyronie’s Disease

Inflammation is a characteristic finding within Peyronie’s plaques. Because of this finding, sources of inflammation, such as that resulting from penile injury, have been implicated as causal factors underlying the development of PD. These findings also underlie the search for anti-inflammatory treatments ed – viagra australia pills  (e.g., vitamin E) that may minimize inflammation and treat penile lesions. Further support for this hypothesis comes from pathologic studies that have demonstrated tunica albuginea scarring secondary to vascular inflammation between the tunica albuginea and the corpora cavernosa. Anatomically, an outer, longitudinally oriented layer of connective tissue overlies an inner, circularly oriented layer. Fibers from the inner layer radiate outward to serve as a support structure to reinforce the corporal septum. Insertions of these fibers may separate with minimal trauma leading to bleeding and inflammation.

If this model of trauma is indeed correct, why are younger men much less likely to develop PD, when they are more likely to have sex more often and more vigorously than older men? It has been suggested that in older men, even mild diminution of erectile rigidity may increase susceptibility to buckling forces. The subsequent trauma to the tunica albuginea may be more likely to result in injury given that an older man’s tissues are less elastic and more prone to disruption. Once a traumatic event has occurred, edema may limit the dispersion of cytokines and related inflammatory mediators, thus perpetuating the local injury. A combination of inflammation and less effective wound healing among some men may lead to fibrosis, a loss of elasticity, and excessive collagen deposition. PD lesions have a higher ratio of collagen type III to type I than in healthy tunica albuginea, a loss of elastic fibers, and increased fibrin deposits. Furthermore, early in the disease process, fibroblasts are found in greater concentration along with inflammatory cells. Calcified ossification of these lesions can occur in up to one-third of these cases. These pathophysiological factors may explain the initial pain experienced by many men with PD that is followed by subsequent penile deformity, curvature, and plaque.

In general, tunical plaques are found on the dorsal aspect of the penis; however, the abnormal tissue may extend beyond the palpable lesion, or even into the corporal tissue or intercavernosal septum. Among the minority of men with PD who do not have palpable plaques, penile ultrasound often demonstrates septal defects, intracorporal fibrosis, or subtunical calcifications. When the normally elastic tunica albuginea fibers are replaced by relatively non-compliant collagen rich tissue, this relative inelasticity and contracture of the tunica albuginea leads to decreased penile length/girth and ipsilateral penile deviation. Further, this inelasticity of the tunica albuginea may impede the normal vasoocclusive mechanism of erection and thus lead to venous leak. This hypothesis would provide an explanation for the erectile dysfunction treatment in Canadian pharmacy viagra seen in some men with PD.

A lot of people contract the herpes zoster virus or the chickenpox while they are still younger. Shingles is a disease that involves the “reactivation” of the virus. The symptoms of the illness include sensitivity to light, flu-like symptoms minus the fever and headache. Other signs of shingles include red, itchy rashes, scabs and blisters. The illness comes with different stages of shingles.

There are 3 known stages of shingles and for each phase, the symptoms also vary. There could be times when health care workers mistake shingles for flu or a cold. In rare cases, it is also even mistaken as symptoms of heart attack.


During the beginning part of the condition, tickling, pain, burning, numbness and tingling may be experienced on some areas of the body before the rashes appear. In other cases, flu-like symptoms are also experienced along with stomachache, swelling of the lymph nodes and chills.

Active or Eruptive

During these different phases, the first strips or bands of rash will show on the body and usually appears along one side of the body. Typical areas include the face and the torso. After some time, the rash will then become blisters. At first, the fluid inside blisters may look clear but turns cloudy after 3 to 4 weeks. There is severe discomfort and excruciating pain that comes with the rashes. After
Post-Herpetic Neuralgia

This stage is where chronic pain is experienced for severe shingles cases. This last phase is characterized by extreme pain, stabbing, persistent pain, burning and intense sensitivity to touch which can be experienced for as long as 30 days.


The most infectious stages of shingles is the active or eruptive phase. This is the time when a person who is suffering with shingles gains the biggest chance or contracting it to others who have never experienced chicken pox in their life or those people who have a weak immune system. The risk of infection increases when the blisters begin breaking and oozing with fluid. In addition to that, it is also possible that the shingles virus can find their way into a person’s eyes which may cause permanent damage. The illness does not really need hospitalization but it needs some ways to control the pain and to prevent further infection and complications.

Most people go through life without ever experiencing the problems caused by uveitis, but it is in fact an extremely serious condition which can lead to blindness. It is an inflammation of the eye, affecting the middle area which is known as the Uvea, and can include the iris and the choroid. Each of the different areas has a slightly different description, which helps the specialist to tailor treatments specifically to the condition. Because it affects this area, it can sometimes go unnoticed, until the patient starts having severe visual difficulties, and goes to the doctor. Although the general practitioner can assist with the diagnosis of uveitis, it will have to be treated by an ophthalmologist, and a clear treatment plan developed and adhered to.

For those who suffer from uveitis, symptoms will include pain in the eye, often with itchy and swollen membranes of the eye. There could be blurred vision, or the sensation of floaters (objects moving down the surface of the eye). The eye itself can turn red, or even become cloudy, all of which suggest that these are symptoms of this illness, and not any other condition. There may also be additional production of tears from the ducts, caused by inflammation affecting this area. Over time, this condition can appear again and again, becoming a chronic, low-level problem. When this occurs, the blood vessels near the retina can be damaged, and visual problems become more severe.

Causes of uveitis can range from a systemic infection which has spread to the eyes, trauma to the eye, or exposure to chemicals which have entered the eye. Another common cause is an autoimmune disorder, and sufferers with this form of uveitis may have connected conditions such as Ankylosing spondylitis, rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis, lyme disease, and some forms of lupus. There are many other types of autoimmune disorders which can cause this inflammation of the eye. Other people may never find out what is causing their illness.

The treatment of uveitis is usually started with a course of steroids. This is done in order to reduce the swelling and inflammation of the eye. This is usually applied first in order to limit the damage to the eye caused by the condition. Once this has begun, the patient can have more medication for the condition, and the application of compresses in order to encourage the reduction of swollen tissue. For more difficult types of inflammation, antimetabolite medication can be used, in order to decrease the production of cells attacking the eye, and in addition anti-inflammatory infusions can be prescribed for persistent swelling.

It’s no secret that Alzheimer’s disease is rapidly growing in America. Everyday more people are diagnosed with Alzheimer’s. Most of us probably have a parent, grandparent or other relative that has been diagnosed with this disease. This is an incredibly difficult disease because in many cases it affects the family members as well as the person suffering from the disease. Sadly, there is currently no known cure for Alzheimer’s disease.

Doctors and scientists over the last several years have dedicated their time and energy full time to the research of Alzheimer’s in hopes of discovering the elusive cure. Alzheimer’s research is a top priority for today’s medical research community.

To some it may not seem like a big deal. Many people figure that since most of the people diagnosed are older than 60 that it’s not as important. They probably fail to realize however that early onset Alzheimer’s can affect people in their forties and fifties too. That means that some people are spending half their life dealing with this disease. For the families of these victims it also means that they miss out on twenty years or more with their loved ones.

For those who don’t have a family member or friend diagnosed with Alzheimer’s disease it is probably pretty hard to imagine how difficult this can be on the family members. Alzheimer’s disease is a disease that attacks the brain. People suffering from it often have a difficult time remembering things, or even living in the present.

There have been dramatizations of Alzheimer’s disease on several television shows, notably Grey’s Anatomy that presented a segment where two of its leading characters fought to find a cure for Alzheimer’s disease. Throughout the many difficult cases they aired of Alzheimer’s patients, they gave us a clearer glimpse into how much suffering goes into the patient with the disease as well as those who care for the afflicted loved one.

Television shows are able to reveal to us what it might be like to be diagnosed with Alzheimer or be a loved one of someone who has the disease. These shows help those with no direct experience of the subject to understand the extensive damage Alzheimer’s disease causes to the sufferers and those who care for them. We cannot fully conceive of what it would be like to basically lose our minds to the extent we do not recognize our own children. Neither can we fully come to grips with the distress of the child whose own parent no longer recognizes him.

There are millions of families across the United States who do know the suffering and know it first hand. They also are aware that it is not just an old person’s disease; it can strike younger family members as well, meaning that the caregiver has a very long siege ahead of them as well as the patient they love so much. This is one of the reasons why Alzheimer’s disease research has such a high priority.

Possibly with adequate funding, the scientists and doctors so diligently working on finding a cure in various laboratories will come up with a cure for Alzheimer’s disease. If some day you find yourself with a few extra bucks in your wallet, don’t go in for that Super size caramel latte; donate it to Alzheimer’s research instead. It’s these little contributions that grow into big discoveries in searching for a cure for this terrible, debilitating disease.

A disorder that affects the wrists and hands, carpal tunnel syndrome is often thought of as just a simple cramp that will go away when the hands are properly rested. Because of lack of information, most of us would ignore the signs and symptoms of this disorder, only seeking treatment when it is already in its late stages. For that to be avoided, it would help to learn about what carpal tunnel syndrome is all about.

Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) happens when the median nerve is compressed. This is the nerve that travels inside the carpal tunnel, which is responsible for the sensations felt by the palms and fingers. It is also responsible for the movement of the small muscles that are located in the said area. When the tissues within the carpal tunnel are swollen or there is a change in position, the median nerve can be squeezed and irritated which will then lead to the condition referred to as CTS.

In most cases of carpal tunnel syndrome, the underlying cause is not known. However, there are certain risk factors that predispose a person to developing CTS. There are certain conditions that are associated with CTS development and these include arthritis, diabetes, pregnancy, obesity, hypothyroidism, leukemia and amyloidosis. Studies have also found out that CTS can develop when there is repetitive work which causes an inflammation in the tendons. These jobs include continuous typing and packing of meat, fish and other goods. It can also occur if there is repeated stress injury on the hands and the wrists.

During the early stages of carpal tunnel syndrome, the initial signs and symptoms include numbness and a tingling sensation of the hands, with the dominant hand being the first one affected. These symptoms usually awaken a person from sleep during night time, which can be attributed to the accumulation of fluids at the hands and wrists or when these are maintained at a flexed position. When this is not managed properly, it will then progress with symptoms that are more severe than the initial ones. You may feel a cramping or burning sensation on the hands as well as weakness. There are some who are unable to form a fist or grip smaller objects. The pain is not just localized at the hands but it can also be felt at the forearms. For chronic CTS, there can be muscle wasting at the hands especially at the base of the thumb.

The treatment of carpal tunnel syndrome depends on the severity of your condition and if there are underlying diseases that are causing it. For the initial treatment, you will need to immobilize the wrists through a splint, apply ice on the affected area and have enough rest. You should also do range of motion exercises and if possible, do it with a physical therapist so that he can ensure if you are doing the right ones. There are medications that will be given for CTS and these include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for the pain and to decrease inflammation, corticosteroids to relieve the symptoms as well as Vitamin B6 supplements. For severe cases, surgery may need to be done to correct any problems that are causing CTS.

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If you know how to recognize the signs and symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome, then you will be treated as early as possible. You will then be able to recover fast and avoid any complications that might happen.

There are a number of reasons why a claimant should hire a Social Security disability attorney to help with a disability benefits claim. The more common reasons include but are not limited to: no up front fees, free consultations, gathering medical records, dealing with Social Security, and arguing in front of an Administrative Law Judge. One of the rarely talked about, yet very important reasons for hiring a disability lawyer is their ability to “re-open” prior claims.

What does it mean to re-open a prior claim?

The Social Security Administration (SSA) routinely denies disability claims. In fact, at the initial application level it can seem as though SSA is only approving claimants that are on the verge of death. Since so many people are denied, many claimants are second, third, or fourth time applicants. If your claim was denied at the Disability Determination Services (DDS) level (where the initial determination is made) and was not appealed, a disability lawyer may be able to “re-open” your prior denial without having to start from square one. The advantages of this specific method are plentiful. Re-opening a prior claim can result in more benefits, speeding up the process, and less documents back and forth.

Re-opening prior Social Security disability claims is governed by 20 C.F.R. 404.988, which can be found on the government website. While there are a number of ways a disability attorney can re-open a prior claim, one of the more straight-forward options is to do so within 12 months of the date listed on the initial determination, for any reason. There should be an emphasis on for any reason.

The second way a prior claim can be re-opened is if it is within four years of the date of notice of the initial determination and if there is “good case”.

Good cause is defined in 20 C.F.R. 404.989:

1) New and material evidence is furnished

2) A clerical error in the computation or recomputation of benefits was made; or

3) The evidence that was considered in making the determination or decision clearly shows on its face an error was made

Good cause for re-opening a case does not exist when the only reason is a change of legal interpretation or administrative ruling upon which the determination or decision was made.

There are many other ways that a case can get re-opened. If you have previously been denied disability benefits, you may have the option of re-opening the case rather then starting a new. It should also be noted that it is important to know whether you had originally applied for SSDI or SSI when you speak with a disability lawyer. Re-opening prior claims is one overlooked yet very important way a disability attorney can help you with your claim.

A lot of people around the world are infected with and suffering from HIV. We are all constantly warned about HIV but we are seldom actually told what happens when we contract HIV. If you want to know what HIV actually does to you then you may want to read on.

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. The name is kind of self-explanatory. Let us take a closer look.

Human would imply that the virus only infects people. This is true. Although the virus is believed to have originated in primates in Africa it mutated when it came into contact with humans and now only infects humans. There is a disease known as feline HIV but this is not the same virus.

It is the immunodeficiency part of the name that tells you how HIV will affect you. Since it is a virus it requires other cells to replicate. It cannot breed without the cellular material provided by the CD4 cells of the human immune system. This cell is a vital part of our immune systems. As the virus breeds it uses up more and more of these cells and eventually your immune system is not able to keep up the required rate of production to keep your immune system in working order and your immune system becomes less effective.

Once this happens you become vulnerable to a wide range of other diseases as your immune system is not able to combat the bacteria and viruses that cause these other illnesses. It is these illnesses, most commonly tuberculosis and pneumonia, that kill you in the long run, not HIV itself.

This is why there is a difference between having HIV and having AIDS. AIDS is the state where your body is no longer able to protect itself from the other viruses and bacteria in the environment. You can be HIV positive but show no effects for a long time. The duration of this seemingly dormant period will depend on the activity of the virus and the strength of your immune system. Some people are lucky and the virus that they are infected with does not cause enough damage to weaken their immune system. They can still pass on the virus to other people though who may not be so lucky.

As I am sure you know, HIV is passed along through the exchange of body fluids. Particularly body fluids that contain the CD4 cells. Saliva, for example, does not contain sufficient live cells to transmit the disease yet breast milk can. viagra online australia

If you are still wondering whether HIV is dangerous or not you have obviously not been paying much attention. There is no cure for HIV at present and once you have the virus in your system it is only a matter of time. It may take years, but the virus will get you in the end. Rather be safe and avoid intercourse with people who are HIV positive or even getting into contact with the body fluids of a person whose status you do not know.

Cushing’s syndrome is a disease that manifests when the body is predisposed to excessive levels of cortisol, a hormone which is released by a person under stress. It is often brought about by the consumption of oral corticosteroid medicines. It can also take place if the body releases too much cortisol. Overproduction of cortisol can develop a few of the cardinal signs of the disease – pink stretch marks on the skin, round face and a flabby bulge in between the shoulders. It will eventually cause bone loss, high blood pressure and on some instance, diabetes. Treatment of the disease can bring back to normal the body’s production of cortisol and eventually alleviate the symptoms. Early treatment means greater indication of rehabilitation.

Cushing syndrome symptoms vary. Its common symptoms include rapid obesity and changes in the skin like: fatty tissue deposits and rapid weight gain, specifically encompassing the upper and mid section, moon-faced and a buffalo hump (amidst the shoulders), pink or purple color stretch marks on the abdominal skin, breasts, thighs and the arms, diminishing, delicate skin that injures easily, delayed healing of injuries, infections or insect bite and acne. More pronounced hair in the body or the face or also known as Hirsutism, erratic or aberrant monthly periods (Amenorrhea) are the common symptoms in women. Cushing syndrome symptoms for men include; diminished libido, reduced fertility, erectile dysfunction. Other symptoms include; weakness of the muscle, fatigue, depression, annoyance, anxiety, lessened control of emotions, high blood pressure, diabetes as a result of Glucose intolerance, bone loss that can lead to fractures, headacheIn cases when one is under corticosteroid medication for conditions such as arthritis, asthma or inflammatory bowel diseases, and are experiencing a few of the signs and symptoms that may attest Cushing syndrome symptoms, better consult the doctor for proper evaluation. And even though one is not using the above mentioned drugs and yet they are experiencing the probable symptoms, get in touch with a doctor. If you don’t get early treatment for this illness, a lot of complications can happen, like, osteoporosis (bone loss), that can develop to bone fractures that are unusual (rib fractures, feet fracture), hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetes, repeated or atypical infections, diminished muscle mass and strength.

If the source of the syndrome is pituitary tumor (Cushing’s disease), it can at times be responsible for other problems such as interference in the production of other hormones that the pituitary glands control.