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In most cases, the gall bladder disease in its initial stages is often confused with smaller stomach or menstruation problems in women and for that reason it is ignored. However, when the symptoms become more severe, the disease is in an advanced stage, and we need medical attention in order to solve it. In this article, we are going to see what the gallbladder disease symptoms in women are.

The function of the gallbladder in the digestive process is great. The bile produced in the liver is stored in the gallbladder, and it is released when needed, and the bile has a role to break down fats from food. When gallstones are formed, it affects the function of the gallbladder and in most cases, they cause blockage of the bile duct which leads to gallbladder disease or infection.

It has been noted that the gallbladder disease affects more women than men, and it is thought that the main reason for that is the estrogen hormone. Other causes of gallbladder problems are rapid loss of weight, consuming foods rich in cholesterol, aging, diabetes, being overweight and physically inactive. When we compare the symptoms of gallbladder disease in men and women, we can see that there is no difference.

One of the main symptoms of gallbladder disease is the well-known pain which appears in the upper-right part of the stomach. Other symptoms in women which may be felt with this pain are lowered blood pressure, vomiting and nausea, unwanted gasses, burping, loss of appetite, fever, bowel problems, etc. The pain may spread to the back and between the shoulder blades, too. These symptoms usually appear at night after a heavy meal.

It is important for pregnant women to contact their doctor immediately after they notice some of the symptoms of gallbladder disease. Many of the symptoms associated with gallbladder disease may be confused when the woman is pregnant, like morning sickness, digestive problems, etc. For that reason the diagnosis and treatment have to be taken seriously.

In not so severe cases of gallbladder problems, it is usually enough to use medications and painkillers and also make slight changes in the eating habits. Don’t use such medications on your own, always consult your doctor. If the disease advances and you see no results from the current treatment, then it is advisable to have a gallbladder removal surgery. However, before the surgery you have to make sure to get all the answers from your doctor regarding the steps of the surgery and potential complications.

Compression stockings, including Sigvaris compression socks, can assuage many medical conditions, including the following chronic diseases.

1. Lymphedema

When the body’s lymph system is compromised, lymphedema may occur. The symptoms of lymphedema include:

  • Skin discoloration.
  • Swollen, heavy limbs.
  • Extreme fatigue.
  • Deformation, if the condition is left unchecked.

To heal lymphedema, excess liquid must be drained. Skin care, compressive bandaging and physical therapy follow. Once this initial round of treatment is complete, doctors recommend wearing compression support stockings to preserve the effects of therapy and to reduce the chances of a flare-up in the future.

2. Phlebitis and Thrombosis

Phlebitis and thrombosis are inflammatory diseases that appear in a different area of the body: the veins. Phlebitis may be identified by:

  • Hard veins that are sensitive to pressure.
  • A slight fever.
  • Swelling of the limbs, especially the hands and feet.
  • Nearby areas of redness and sensitivity to touch.

The main concern with phlebitis is that it can cause blood clots to form. If blood clots move to the heart, brain or lungs, they can become stuck and cause heart attacks and strokes. Thrombosis is similar; it occurs in larger veins, often deep in the legs. However, thrombosis is more difficult to treat because it often presents no symptoms. Because compression stockings increase circulation, they naturally reduce the likelihood that clots will turn fatal. Compression stockings also help counterbalance phlebitis and thrombosis by applying pressure to the veins, thereby cutting down on the amount of excess liquid in the legs.

3. Edema

Any swelling in the body may be called edema. Indeed, everything from the brain swelling that occurs at high altitudes to the puffiness around the eyes that many people experience upon awakening may be termed edema. Mediven, Juzo and Sigvaris compression socks are designed to heal edema that manifests in the lower legs. Called peripheral edema, this disease includes swelling around the calf and ankle, which causes stretched, shiny skin. In peripheral edema, liquid gets stuck in the “interstitial” areas of the body, between the blood vessels. It is natural for swelling to be worst in the lower areas of the body, where gravity has the most effect. For those with peripheral edema, walking may be painful.

There are two varieties of edema: non-pitting and pitting. To figure out which type of edema they are looking at, doctors and nurses usually apply pressure to the bloated area.

— If a hollow remains after pressure has been released, the patient has pitting edema.
— In contrast, skin bounces back up quickly in cases of non-pitting edema.

Compression stockings are excellent for treating non-pitting edema. This is because they force blood to move into new areas. Because it is linked with kidney, liver and heart conditions, a medical professional must treat pitting edema.

Lymphedema, thrombosis, phlebitis and edema are only a few of the conditions compression support stockings can help treat. Talk to your doctor today about compression stockings to discover whether they can help you.

It is understandable to consider tinnitus a affliction of the hearing system, but it is not any kind of disease condition. More accurately what has taken place is there usually has been some type of physical damage caused by something. There are various reasons for ringing in the ears such as an mishap of some kind that produce a loud noise. There are many work situations involving high decibel noise levels, for example, and this may be the reason. Subsequently it is also possible to have a congenital problem coupled with your hearing system. If your condition developed over time, then that can make it hard to pinpoint the exact cause. If this is something that brings you distress, then the best path of action is visiting your family physician.The most typical reason for developing tinnitus is some kind of injury to the cochlea which is a section of your inner ear. We mentioned that unexpected exposure to a exceptionally loud noise can cause this. A very high pitch and loud noise is what resulted my own disorder but only in one ear. Whereas tinnitus is not wholly understood, some indicate it is the brain producing the ringing. They also believe the brain does this in response to lack of hearing related electrical signals. On the other hand, the fact they are formulating a theory in relation to it means they do not really know.It is probable for a disorder to get worse due to numerous factors. One classic source of aggravated tinnitus is if you get a build-up of ear wax over time. The common ear infection will typically make short term tinnitus as the ability to hear is interefered with. An alternative contributor to wide-ranging degradation is the getting older process. Getting old can either introduce tinnitus or make it poorer if already present. As aging advances, then the ability to hear degrades which creates on tinnitus.

Some prescription drugs are identified to cause ear ringing, too. There are countless risks with taking too much aspirin, and surprisingly this very same condition could occur. Sadly there are certain classes of above average strength antibiotics which might produce this condition. Quinine pills can cause this as well but not in all people. So there are diverse conditions and causes for a human being to start hearing ringing in their ears.

Tinnitus is frequently not a tough predicament for people because nearly all natural sounds hide the ringing. You will notice this, though, once you go to bed and it’s hushed. As soon as it is exceptionally calm, and you are just laying in bed, then that is when you are most apt to perceive ringing in your ears. People do describe varying levels of the ringing in their ears. If you have it and it especially bothers you, then you should talk to your doctor. A call to a healthcare professional who specializes in this topic could prove to be a good idea.

Hamstring injury and Marfan injury are two disorders that we often hear about but we have no idea on how to treat them. Here are some treatment methods for these disorders, with some that are easily done at home without the help of a health care professional.

A hamstring injury refers to the tear in the hamstring muscles. These three muscles are responsible for the bending of the knee and the extension of the hip or the movement of the thighs backward. There are four common symptoms of hamstring injury. There is bruising at the back of the thigh and can go down to the knee, swelling, muscle spasms that is usually painful and difficulty of movement. There are several causes of hamstring injuries and it is common in athletes especially those who do a lot of jumping and stretching activities.

The RICE technique is one of the most recommended treatment methods for hamstring injury. RICE stands for rest, ice, compress and elevate. Since there is an injury to your legs, you need to have adequate rest and avoid straining the affected area to prevent further injuries. You can also apply ice packs over the affected area to help relieve the pain and decrease swelling. If you have compressive bandage, apply these on your legs to prevent intramuscular bleeding. Elevation will help in decreasing the swelling as well as maintaining the normal blood flow within the body. If you know a physical therapist, ask for help so that you can start rehabilitation of the affected muscles. mexican pharmacy online no prescription

  • If the above treatment methods are not working, you should see your doctor for proper evaluation and if there are additional treatments that need to be done.
  • Also, you need to seek for medical help if you have difficulty when walking, when the pain is intolerable and is not relieved with rest and when you feel that there is a rupture of the hamstring.
  • Nevertheless, seek for medical attention if you are not sure about what to do for your hamstring injury.

On the other hand, Marfan injury is a medical condition wherein the connective tissues of the body such as the skeletal and cardiovascular systems, the eyes and the skin are affected. This is a genetic disorder and people who have it are described as unusually tall, with spider-like fingers and long limbs. It can be mild to severe, with affected body areas depending on the severity of the disorder. Some of the signs and symptoms of Marfan injury include flat feet, crowded teeth and highly arched palate, very flexible joints, nearsightedness, learning disabilities, scoliosis and thin, narrow face.

As of the moment, there is no cure for Marfan injury and the treatment is focused on improving the quality of life and minimizing the signs and symptoms. Vision problems should be treated, and medicines are given to help in slowing down the heart rate to help prevent heart problems. Scoliosis should also be monitored and addressed properly. Those who are suffering from Marfan injury are also advised to avoid strenuous activities and contact sports to avoid injuries especially those that concern the heart.

Knowing about Marfan injury and hamstring injury is necessary so that you are able to identify the different treatment methods for these disorders.

Having a fatty liver most certainly means living an unhealthy lifestyle. In contemporary society, people have different lifestyles and this inevitably has an effect on their health. Some health conditions are caused by neglect or paying less attention to what they eat and drink, and this is certainly true with fatty liver disease, which is common in people who consume a lot of alcohol or who are obese. This condition is characterized by fat which accumulates in the liver cells. Nonetheless, it is reversible either medically or by using a diet plan and in this case, we shall look at the latter option.

Consider what causes a fatty liver

Since fatty liver is associated with metabolic syndromes like hypertension or diabetes, we can’t forget about nutritional causes like bacterial over growth and drugs and toxins. Now having considered the above causes, we can look at specific diets that can reverse this condition and help you maintain a healthy lifestyle. These changes are not supposed to be made drastically, but gradually for the body to adjust and make it a routine.

First of all, there are a few things that you should do to ensure that a diet plan for fat in the liver works effectively. Well, if you want the diet to work for you and to experience the health change, then you should definitely avoid drinking alcohol, fatty foods like hamburgers, roast meat, eggs, and butter, and generally foods rich in oxalate salts derived from sodium, calcium, and phosphorus.
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Diet plan for fatty liver

For a healthy breakfast, you can eat whole meals like cereals or oatmeal. Dry fruits should be a part of this meal, while not forgetting to use honey instead of sugar as a sweetener. You can also include dairy products like yogurt or cheese in your daily portions or in between meals too. These foods will help a lot by improving digestion, removing fats and gradually improving liver function, and thus mitigating the risks posed by fat in the liver.

You don’t have to give up most of the foods that you eat. Rather, you only need to just get the right combination of nutrients, vitamins, carbohydrates and minerals to mitigate the effects of a fatty liver. You should also pay attention to eating the right portions of foods and less of the fatty foods, of course. Replace red meat, which is one of the causes fatty liver, with white lean meat like chicken and fish. It’s best to cut off all of the excess fat from the meat before cooking. Eating food that is high in fiber is recommended, like whole grains, pasta, legumes, nuts and seeds. These are digested easily and reduce the risk of contracting fatty liver disease.
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We cannot leave out vegetables such as fresh kale, spinach, lettuce, and broccoli which should be boiled or eaten raw in salads. These veggies are very good for you and can be taken with cooked sweet corn, raw carrots, and potatoes. You should consider fruits with high fiber content such as oranges, mangos, raspberries, and pineapples. Generally, it is advisable that you eat daily portions because they aid and they supply essential minerals to boost the body’s immune system and cell metabolism.

A fatty liver diet means eating smarter

With this diet, it is evident that we have conspicuously avoided fatty foods. The reason is pretty simple, fatty foods cause fat build-up which eventually causes fatty liver disease, and you need to consider prevention, using a proper diet that has been proved to work. The evidence shows, by trusted liver experts over many years, that people who continue to use the above foods will reverse their fat liver and have a healthier future.

Lastly, you should also remember the importance of fluids in the body and their contribution to reducing the effects of fat in the liver. Each meal should at least include a tall glass of water. You should not drink beverages or drinks with high sugar content, instead you should opt for the much revitalizing natural juices extracted from fruits such as mangos, passion fruits, and carrots which have a natural balance of sugar, to help with your fatty liver diet.

In aiming to discuss remedies for scabies we first have to have a full understanding of what we are treating. We must never try to cure ourselves with over the counter medicines and application creams for scabies unless we are diagnosed by the doctor with scabies. In determining the cures for this itchy disease, one must keep in mind the nature of the situation.

First we start by introducing scabies in the simplest way possible. Scabies is a skin disorder caused by a parasite called Sarcoptes scabiei. It is a very small parasite that the naked eye cannot see. It must be viewed under the microscope. The parasites causing scabies live on human skin, breed on human skin and feed on human blood. These little mites can live in inanimate objects as well. However, they only last up to 3 days. Their life span is much longer in human skin.

To further have an idea of scabies and its treatment, one must have an idea as well on how it looks like and what signs and symptoms show in a person’s skin that is infected with it. Scabies is distinguished with other skin diseases because it is characterized by severe itchiness. This severe itchiness in the infected skin is remarkably noted most especially during the nighttime. The itchy areas are infested with reddish or pinkish lesions that are accompanied by bumps. Scabies is most accurately diagnosed with the detection of the “S” trail or a zigzag mark on the skin.

The most common location in the skin where scabies usually affect is the hands, wrists, in between the fingers and toes, feet, forearms, under the breast, in the groin area, and in the external genitalia. These are the places where the skin is moist and warm. And the scabies parasites love that area.

How exactly do we get scabies? Number one culprit is poor hygiene. This includes neglecting of hand washing and bathing. Skin to skin contact is another way of spreading scabies. If you live in a dorm or an overcrowded environment, there is a higher chance for you to get this itchy skin disorder. Sharing clothes, towels, linens, bed, pillows and blankets is also another way. Cuddling is another mode of transmission.

The people who are at risk for getting scabies are hospital personnel, people living in overcrowded areas, people who are confined in the hospital or in a nursing home, travelers, persons with low immune system and those who are poor in hygiene.

I have one brainy quote from Desiderius Erasmus. It is none other than the ever popular “Prevention is better than cure.” The ways to prevent scabies are bathing, hand washing, changing of clothes after you sweat, after you get out of the gym. Bed linens, pillowcases, comforters and blankets must be washed and changed at least after every 1 or 2 weeks. It is also advisable to take a bath before you jump in the bed. Bed cushion, mattresses or pillows must be washed and changed into a clean one at least after every month or as often as you like.

Visiting a sick friend or a sick relative in the hospital is indeed a very sweet gesture, but you must always wash your hands after your visit and you can even take a shower right after.

There are two treatments for scabies, the natural home remedy and the medical remedy. There are pros and cons for the two kinds of treatments. Let us discuss the medical treatment first. Medical treatment is obviously not self prescribed and it is not advisable to buy over the counter medicines as this is harmful and might even have a long-term effect to those that did not take the medicine properly.

Medical treatment is entirely dependent on the doctor’s discretion. They are the only ones who can help people infected with scabies by giving medicines orally and even directing patients to apply lotion or cream to relieve the uncomfortable symptoms brought about by scabies. The common medicines prescribed are oral steroids. Steroids can relieve itchiness. There are also ointments with steroids. When applied directly on the infected parts, the itchiness is alleviated 15 – 20 minutes after application. Soaps with sulfur also help.

Another treatment of scabies which is all organic is the natural remedy. The natural remedy involves what there is in the soil, such as different herbs and plants. Water is also involved under the natural remedies. Cool water bath helps a lot in relieving itchiness. You can soak in the tub with cold water. Hot water is definitely not recommended. Remember that scabies parasites love warm areas and taking a hot bath will make matters worse.

Oils are not only aromatic and good for massage, but oils are also therapeutic. Neem oil comes in concentrated most times so mixing it in water before applying to infected skin must be done. Neem oil has properties that act similar to pesticides. It shoos away nasty mites and even other insects in the house. This oil can also be dropped in pillowcases and bed linens.

This next oil is another nature’s wonder and it originated from the country Tahiti. It is Tamanu oil is out there in the market that has antimicrobial properties. It reduces rashes, sores and swelling. The success rate of tamanu oil in treating scabies is 70 – 75%.

Rosemary is a popular herb that is used all over the world and is usually found in aromatic dishes. Rosemary is also used to treat scabies because of its antifungal, anti-parasitic properties. It also acts like an astringent. This natural herb improves circulation and controls pathogenic organisms like Sarcoptes scabiei that is solely responsible for causing this itchy skin disorder.

There are numerous herbs out there listed for the treatment of scabies, but I have compiled a few ones. And the last herb to be discussed is Coconut oil. Coconut has vitamin E and also has moisturizing properties that prevents the skin from getting dry. Besides all the above mentioned uses of coconut oil, the most important thing of all is its antimicrobial function just like the other oils. It fights scabies and relieves the infected person from itchiness and discomfort.

What is meningitis and when is a meningitis vaccination needed? These questions literally wake full-grown adult parents up from a dead sleep. In towns and counties-even cities-and all over the United States, meningitis is rearing its ugly head. How do we defeat the threat of our children becoming infected with this most devastating and potentially fatal disease that can attack anyone yet seems to find our children most vulnerable?

Many parents know the horror story of having someone in their son or daughter’s class who comes down with what seems an instantaneous attack of meningitis. Many times the children are sent home and the next thing that happens is you are sitting with your child and clumsily explaining life and death and mortality to them as you drive over to the funeral home so the fellow students of the deceased can share in their grief.

The statists are frightening. Worldwide there are over 330,000 new cases reported each year. In the United States the number of new cases reported annually is approximately 2,600. Out of both these infection rates up to twenty percent of those infected will die from the disease.

What is Meningitis?

There are different types of meningitis- Spinal, viral, and bacterial are just three-and vaccination guards against all of them. Generally speaking, meningitis is an inflammation of the membrane that covers and protects the brain inside the skull cavity and that also protects and covers the spinal cord.

Viral Meningitis can cause a relatively less severe infection. It’s no walk through the park and it may clear up without applying a heavy duty treatment plan, but it is still an infection that is concentrated around the brain and spine and should never be taken lightly.

Bacterial Meningitis on the other hand, can cause a much more severe infection. This strain of meningitis may cause brain damage, hearing loss, learning disabilities and easily…death.

Knowing the difference between which strain the patient (or loved one) has been infected with is very important because the treatment options are so-very different for each type.

Signs & Symptoms

The symptoms of both types of meningitis overlap. They may take one or two days to develop and they include:

  • High fever
  • Headache
  • Stiff neck
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Difficulty looking into bright lights
  • Confusion
  • And sleepiness

Now, obviously this list looks like it could fit any teenager at one point or more in his/her life. Do not jump to conclusions. Keep your ears to the ground regarding what is happening in your part of town health-wise. And remember that if a schoolmate or your child comes down with any form of meningitis you will be notified through the school system.


The best protection available today is the meningitis vaccination. Some types of meningitis is passed from person to person, student to student. So unless you are planning on home schooling for their entire lives (and then still not allowing them outside around other kids to have any fun whatsoever) vaccination is the way to go.

Who should receive the meningitis vaccination?

According to the preeminent authority on such matters, The Centers For Disease Control & Prevention, the following individuals should receive the meningitis vaccination:

  • Preteens and teens 11 to 18 years old
  • College freshman who reside in dormitories
  • Children ages 2 to 10 years old who are at an increased risk and those suggested by their medical care providers or parents

So there it is, the meningitis vaccination should be administered to all those who fit in the above-mentioned categories, for then and only then, can they rest assure they will be safe from infection even throughout an unfortunate breakout at their school or at after-school events.

Diet is one of the key ingredients to either having or not having leaky bowels. Unfortunately many people do not practice healthy eating habits and this can lead into leaky gut syndrome when important dietary needs are missing. More and more processed foods, which lack necessary microorganisms, are being produced. This will cause irregularities in the stomachs bacteria levels.

The most common signs of having leaky bowels are things such as; gas, diarrhea, cramping and indigestion. This occurs when there are problems with the normal function of the digestive system. The digestive system has a very important role and specific order in which all things need to follow. Once you have decided what it is that you initially want to eat, this food will travel to your intestines making a few necessary stops along the way. First the small intestine, where nutrients are soaked up, then to the large intestine where the remaining water is absorbed. It is important to have a balanced amount of good and bad bacteria being that they both have a key role. Good bacteria are crucial for the digestive system. They are responsible for aiding food to digest and provide necessary nutrients and vitamins. A healthy level of good bacteria will also decrease the amount of the bad bacteria. When the bad bacteria levels begin to grow, it will create more symptoms that are associated with problems such as leaky bowels.

The problems with the foods we regularly consume are that they are processed and loaded with sugars. Processed foods lack vital nutrients and other important ingredients that are needed in a healthy diet. This will later cause problems with the harmony of the good and bad bacteria. Normal bowels can only occur when there is a good balance. Even having a regular intake of alcohol and drug usage can cause problems which are linked to leaky gut syndrome. Such things as life’s burdens and hardships are also found to cause imbalances of the bacteria. Antibiotics are given to eliminate the bad; however, they also affect the quantity of the good bacteria. Antibiotics do not discriminate and can cause other problems in the long run. It is important to have good bacteria because it will help to protect your stomach from things such as preservatives and coloring.

Leaky bowels start when there is physically a leak in the intestines. This causes issues with the digestive systems normal process. When a leak is present, things such as, bacteria and other bodily waste enter the bloodstream. Since the bloodstream is the body’s highway, it doesn’t take very long for these unwanted travelers to enter into the organs.

Daily use of a probiotic along with trying to maintain a healthy diet can help to keep the balance of bacteria in check. It comes down to needing to keep the levels of bad bacteria very minimal in order to stay clear from having leaky bowels. So it is important to have a watchful eye out for the foods that you consume that cause your body to react badly.

Asthma is characterised by airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness, resulting in reversible;e airway obstruction and paroxysmal coughing. The mechanisms by which viral infections exacerbate asthma are very complex. Recently there have been considerable advances in our understanding of asthma exacerbation at the cellular level and also the mechanisms of airway hyperresponsiveness.

Aggravation of Airway Inflammation and Cytokine Production
Many studies have investigated the mechanisms of virus induced exacerbation in airway inflammation. Eosinophils are very important effector cells in asthma, and are increased in the bronchial mucosa of asthmatic patients. Experimentally induced rhinovirus infection have been found to increase the infiltration of epithelial eosinoplhils. This persists into the convalescent period in subjects with asthma, but not in non asthmatics.Increased eosinophil products have also been observed in induced sputum supernatans from asthmatics subjects. Eosinophils from patients with RSV bronchiolitis produce more ECP in nasopharyngeal samples, supporting the hypothesis that eosinophils play a role in the development of asthma following RSV bronchiolitis. These data suggest that eosinophil infiltration is likely to be a crucial element in the pathology leading to the clinical exacerbation of asthma.

During experimental colds, CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ T-lympho-cyte infiltration was also observed in the airway epithelium and submucosa. In asthmatic subjects, type 2 helper T-cells (Th2 cells) producing IL-4, which promotes isotype swithcing if IgE, are more increased relative to Th1 cells, which orduce IFN-y and IL-2. The Th2 cells producing IL-5, which promote eosinophil differtiation relative to Th1 cells. Cytotoxic CD8+ lymphocytes can be divided into type 1 cytotoxic T-cells (Tc1) cells which produce Th1-like cytokines, and Tc2 cells which produce Th1-like cytokines, and Tc2 cells which produce Th2-like cytokines. Respiratory viral infection normally promote CD4+ Th1 and CD8+ Tc1 responses, resulting in antiviral effects through the activation of Natural Killer cells by IL-2 and IFN-y. However, in atopic patients wit high levels of IL-4, the T-lymphocyte responses to viral infection may be different compared with that of non-atopic subjects. Coyle et al showed that a CD8+ lymphocyte-rich transgenic mouse model sensitised to ovalbumin increased the production if IL-5 but deceased IFN-y. In addition, CD8+ lymphocytes lost their cytotoxicity and increased production of IL-5 when cultured with IL-4 in vitro. These is some evidence that a Th2-like response during rhinovirus injection occurs in atopic subjects. Gern et al also showed that CD8+ lymphocytes from atopic subjects produce a higher amount of IL- than those from normal subjects. In cases of RSV bronchiolitis in infants, there is an imbalance in the immune factors produced in a Th2-like response. Further investigations area needed to clafiry these hypotheses.

Neutrophils are increased in the airways during viral infections. Nasal aspirates of asthmatic subjects contain increased levels of IL-8, with chemotaxis of neutrophils and myeloperoxidase from neutrophils during virus induced asthma exacerbation. Increased IL-8 levels have been reported in nasal lavage, and levels correlating with airway hyperactivity have been observed during rhinovirus infections. IL-8 from bronchial epithelial cells is also increased in virus induced asthma exacerbation. However, the role of neutrophils in the asthmatic airway is not clearly understood.

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The recruitment of inflammatory cells into the airways depends largely on epithelial cells. Epithelial cells are the initial sites of virus entry and replication, and adhesion molecules implicated in cell recruitment in virus induced asthma. The expresion of ICAM-1, the major receptor or rhinoviruses in epothelial cells, is induced by rhinovirus infections both in vitro and in vivo. This results in the recruitment and activation of intraepitelial lymphocytes and eosinophils. RSV alsi increases ICAM-1 expression. RANTES and GM-CSF from epithelial cells may also play an important role in the recruitment and activation of eosinophils, while IL-8 recruits neutropphils. In addition to these, eotaxin and MCP-4 are involved in eosinophil chemotaxis and activation. Epithelial cells also produce IL-11, which induced airway hyperresposiveness.

Adenoviruses, influenza viruses and RSV are well known to involve the lower airway, however it is not yet clear whether rhinoviruses invade the lower airway. Recently it has been reported that rhinoviruses are able to replicate at 37 C in addition to 30 C, their optimum temperature for replication. Virus genomes were also revealed to invade respiratory epithelial cells. This suggests that rhinoviruses may be directly involved in the aggravation of the allergic inflammation associated with brochial asthma.

Aggravation of Airway Hyperresponsiveness
The most common characteristics of asthma is airway hyperresponsiveness. It is wel known that aitrway hyperresponsiveness is aggravated by viral infections, resulting in virus induced exacerbation of airway hyperresponsiveness are as follows.

Alteration of Autonomic Nerveous System Function

Increase of Vagally Mediated Bronchocontriction

During viral infections, the activity of the cholinergic nerve asytem which cause bronchoconstriction is preventable by premedication woth atropine. This suggests that viral infection induces and increases vagally mediated bronchoconstritian. This is mainly due to the dysfunction of M2 muscarinic receptors, caused by various mediators, espercially the major basic protein from eosinophils which infiltrates the area around the vagus nerve. M2 muscarinic receptors are responsible for the feedback inhibiton of cholinergic activity.

Decrease of β2-Adrenergic Function The β2-adrenergic nervous system is implicated in the relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle, the decrease in leukocyte inflammatory response, and the inhibiton of mediator release. Leukocytes from patients with virus induced asthma exacerbation exhibit diminished β2-adrenergic function, suggesting that respiratory viruses can lead to grater inflammatory activity.

Sensory C Fibres and Neouropeptides Additional contributors to airway hyperreactivity are sensory C fibres which locally release sustance-P and neurokinin A, which are impotant meditaors in neurogenic inflammation.

Candida overgrowth, which is properly termed Candida Albicans, is a naturally occurring yeast that lives in our digestive systems. Under normal circumstances, this yeast is kept under control by the friendly bacteria that live in our digestive systems, which are necessary for good health. But, what happens when the body becomes out of balance, and the Candida gets out of control?

The answer: That naturally occurring yeast becomes a fungus, and suddenly it begins to cause all kinds of problems. Many times, the symptoms of Candida overgrowth seem very strange and unrelated, and they can seemingly be attributed to other causes. As a matter of fact, there is an entire laundry list of Candida symptoms which can compound to make life absolutely miserable – and worse, make your physician scratch his or her head in puzzlement.

Let’s take a look at some of the top Candida overgrowth symptoms.

Top Candida Overgrowth Symptoms

Candida is capable of causing over 100 different symptoms, some of which can be major health problems. You and your doctor might be attempting to cure these individual problems, yet you might not be aware that the underlying problem is really Candida Albicans – so your symptoms might be returning in different forms. Here are twenty top Candida Symptoms you should be aware of:

  • Athlete’s Foot, Jock Itch, and other fungal infections of the skin and nails
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Intolerance of various odors
  • Cravings for bread, alcohol, and sugar.
  • Abdominal Bloating
  • Excess Flatulence or Gas
  • Persistent Vaginal Infections
  • Frequent Urinary Tract, Kidney, or Bladder Infections
  • Frequent Sinus Infections
  • Acne
  • Unexplainable Hives
  • Eczema and Psoriasis
  • Feelings of Fatigue and general malaise
  • Headaches
  • Hair Loss
  • Bad Breath
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Earaches
  • Adverse Reactions to Various Foods

These are just some of the symptoms you might be experiencing if you are suffering from Candida overgrowth. Often, your complaints may get worse in damp or muggy weather, or if you are in a dusty or moldy area. If you eat a diet high in sugar or simple carbohydrates it can also aggravate your symptoms, as the yeast feeds on the sugars in your diet.

There are many other symptoms, some of them as vague as a persistent feeling of tiredness or a slight feeling of depression. Most people experience a variety of different Candida overgrowth symptoms, which is just one reason doctors are so often confused! Another reason for confusion is that many of these symptoms do not seem to be related, and they usually occur at different times.